What is Cryptography?
It’s the study of techniques for secure communication within the presence of third parties called adversaries. In simple words, it’s about constructing and analyzing protocols to preventing third parties from reading private messages.
Current cryptography is especially supported by mathematical theory and computing practice.
What is Cryptocurrency?
It’s a digital asset designed to figure as a medium of exchange wherein individual coin ownership records are stored during a ledger existing during a sort of computerized database using strong cryptography to secure transaction records, to regulate the creation of additional coins, and to verify the transfer of coin ownership.
Public Key Cryptography and Cryptocurrency
In Ethereum, we use public-key cryptography(also referred to as asymmetric cryptography) to make the public-private key pair.
Together they represent an Ethereum account by providing, respectively, a publicly accessible account handle(the address) and personal control over access to the other within the account and over any authentication the account needs when using smart contracts.
The private key controls access by being the unique piece of data needed to make digital signatures, which are required to sign transactions to spend any funds within the account. Digital signatures also are wont to authenticate owners or users of contracts.
Ethereum transaction is essentially an invitation to access a specific account with a specific Ethereum address.
The private key used in public–crucial cryptography is a arbitrary number with certain parcels ( length, primality, and so on). The public key is deduced from the private key.
The security of public–crucial cryptography is grounded upon a mathematically “ hard” problem. This is an operation that’s “ easy” (polynomial complexity) to perform and “ hard” (exponential complexity) to reverse. Generally used “ hard” problems include
Factoring problem Multiplication of two high figures is “ easy,” factoring is “ hard”
. Separate logarithm problem Exponentiation is “ easy,” logarithms are “ hard”
. The hardness of the problem is vital to the balance of security and usability. Since certain operations are easier than others, it’s possible to design an algorithm that allows licit druggies to perform the “ easy” operation while forcing bushwhackers to perform the “ hard” one. By adding the size of the values used, the difficulty of the problems can be acclimated so that the system is usable but vulnerable to attack.
Encryption and digital autographs
The use of two different keys in public–crucial cryptography also enables it to be used in a couple of different ways
Encryption Someone with knowledge of a stoner’s public key can cipher a communication with it. This communication can also be deciphered using the corresponding private crucial
Digital autographs A communication can be digitally inked using a private key and the hand can be vindicated with the associated public key
These two operations can use the same algorithm. The important fact in both cases is that one key makes it possible to undo what the other does, producing the original communication.
Blockchain operations of public–crucial cryptography
The blockchain is designed to be a distributed and decentralized system. Each knot in the network is responsible for maintaining its own dupe of the digital tally, and data — in the form of deals and blocks — is transmitted between bumps via a peer-to- peer network.
Public crucial cryptography and digital autographs are essential to making this system work. They give the following features in the blockchain
A digital hand proves that a communication can only have been created by someone with knowledge of the applicable private key. Since public keys are linked to particular accounts, this ensures that only someone with knowledge of an account’s private key can produce deals forming from that account
A sale or block may pass through multiple different bumps on its path from its creator to a particular knot in the network. Since the blockchain is designed to minimize the need to trust in other bumps, this data needs to be defended against vicious revision. A digital hand is only valid if the associated data has not been tampered with, enabling it to give both authentication and integrity protection
On the blockchain, identity is managed using public–crucial cryptography. Account addresses are grounded on public keys, so creating a valid account only requires the generation of a private/ public key brace and the associated address. This enables blockchain druggies to remain anonymous (a private key is a arbitrary number not linked to their real identity) while icing that any deals made using an account were authorized.