What is Internet of Things (IoT)?

What is Internet of Things (IoT)?


The internet of Things, or IoT, refers to the billions of physical devices around the world that are now connected to the web, collecting, sharing, and analyses of knowledge. It presents and provides the explanation of the network of physical things which is embedded with software, sensors, and other technologies for the benefit of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems on the internet.
Due to the cheap processors and wireless networks, it’s possible to means anything, from a pill to an airplane to a self-driving car into an area of the IoT.


IoT will control the Fourth technological revolution.
The Fourth technological revolution is changing the very software-defined automation that allows manufacturers to link all stages of the worth chain, rapidly adapt to changing markets, and make highly personalized products on a mass scale.
The opportunities provided by this revolution are authenticated with McKinsey, the economic impact of smart factories could reach up to $2.3 trillion once a year by 2025.
In the middle of the Fourth technological revolution is that the web of Things (IoT), which uses digital technology to attach sensors, actuators, and machines to every other and to factory workers.


The network of physical devices that joined IP connectivity with software, sensors, actuators, and other electronics to directly integrate the physical world into our computer-based systems, leading to efficiency improvements and economic benefits known as the Internet of Things.

Simpler Definition:

The internet of Things could even be a network of Internet-connected devices that coordinated embedded sensor data to the cloud for centralized processing.


Applications for IoT device is commonly divided into commercial, industrial, consumer, and infrastructure spaces at the larger context.
Consumer applications
IoT devices are generated for consumer use at fast-growing, which included inter-connected vehicles, wearable technology, connected health, and appliances with remote monitoring capabilities.
Smart home
IoT devices are related to the larger concept of home automation, which may include lighting, heating and air-con, media and security systems, and camera systems.
The larger advantages could include energy savings by automatically ensuring lights and electronics are turned off or by making the residents within the house conscious of usage.
Smart Planet (Green environment)
Environmental sensors.
Water power leak detection
Pollution, weather monitoring
Smart cities (Connected communities)
Lighting, water management
Monitoring and security
Smart Energy (Electric grid)
Voltage and power sensors
Meters and breakers
Fault detection
Smart Transport
Electric mobility
EVs and HEVs
High-speed trains
Infrastructure ,V21, V2v,V21+1
Smart Industry (Industrial environment)
Lightening, security, actuators, production control, Robotics
One key application of a wise home is to supply assistance for those with disabilities and elderly individuals. These home systems usage assistive technology to adjust an owner’s specific disabilities.
The voice control may help users with sight and mobility limitations while alert systems are often connected to cochlear implants worn by hearing-impaired users. They can even be equipped with additional safety features. These highlights may indulge sensors that monitor for medical emergencies like falls or seizures. The smart home technology enforced during this manner may give users more freedom and a much better quality of life.
Enterprise IoT deals with devices utilized in business and company settings. It’s estimated that the EIoT will account for 9.1 billion devices by 2019.

The Current and Future Impact of IoT

The IEEE has compiled data and makes subsequent claims about its current and future impact:
The worldwide wearable market had developed already from 223% the previous year (and data on Statista shows it increasing by another 243% between 2015 and 2022).
By 2020, 250 million vehicles are becoming to be connected to the web
IoT would probably include 15 trillion dollars to the worldwide economy over the subsequent 20 years
There are becoming to be 50 billion Internet-connected devices by the year 2020.

Benefits of IoT

  • The interconnection of those multiple embedded devices is becoming to be leading to automation in nearly all fields and also enabling advanced applications. this is often often often leading to improved accuracy, efficiency, and economic benefit with reduced human intervention. the foremost benefits of IoT are:
  • Improved Customer Engagement
  • Technical Optimization
  • Reduced Wastage
  • Integrate and Adapt Business Model
  • Better Business Decision

IoT Enabling Factors

  • Miniaturization
  • Connectivity
  • Advanced power sources and power management
  • Inexpensive processors, sensors, and actuators
  • Cloud-based processing
  • Ubiquitous computing

Challenges to IoT

  • Security, Privacy, and compliance.
  • Market fragmentation
  • Legacy infrastructure
  • LAWN/WAN Connectivity
  • Underutilized data
  • Interoperability and Standards

IoT Devices vs Computers

  • IoT Device features the main function break away Computation
  • Cars drive, Phone make calls, TVs displays shows
  • Computation could even be a way to an end
  • The computers key function is to compute, they’re general-purpose machines
  • This is clear that IoT Devices are Special Purpose Devices, software and hardware are efficient for the task – but inefficient for other tasks

Technological Trends that cause IoT

  • The cost of hardware has been declined to allow to be added to devices
  • Smaller size and lesser weight needed to include computation into devices
  • Computation ability has increased tremendously
  • Internet is out there everywhere
  • The Wireless Access (4G, Wi-Fi) has done cheap and ubiquitous, 5G on the way (No physical cables required)
  • Data transmission cost is very low, and internet bandwidth is high
  • Cloud computing is doing used extensively (IoT devices are a window to those cloud services)
  • Easy Rise of Open Source Software (Rust, Web Assembly, Docker, Kubernetes, etc.)
  • Environmental sustainability impact
  • A priority regarding Internet-of-things technologies pertains to the environmental impacts of the manufacture, use, and eventual disposal of these semiconductor-rich devices.
  • Modern electronics are replete with an honest kind of heavy metals and rare-earth metals, also as highly toxic synthetic chemicals.
  • This makes them extremely difficult to properly recycle. The Electronic components are mostly incinerated or placed in regular landfills.
  • The human and environmental cost of mining the rare-earth metals that are integral to modern electronic components continues to grow further.
  • The IoT devices may assist in some cases to scale back the energy consumption of certain applications, the impact of getting billions of devices connected and consuming power from batteries and from the grid will have an enormous impact on energy consumption and CO2 emissions.
Mansoor Ahmed is Chemical Engineer, web developer, a writer currently living in Pakistan. My interests range from technology to web development. I am also interested in programming, writing, and reading.
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