Quantum computing technology is based on quantum physics that deals with the behavior of energy & matter at the quantum level. Present computing technology processes all data using binary bits with two possible states of 0 & 1 ~ quantum computers use the unit qubits (quantum bits) instead of binary bits.
Google quantum microchip named “Sycamore” ~ is able to process 253-bit strings (9 quadrillion bit strings per second) – the quantum computer can only operate at minus 273 centigrade and malfunctions at room temperature. Google quantum computer can process data volumes in 200 seconds which a traditional data center will take 10,000 years. Data is being processed by using microchips in Google’s quantum computer, Sycamore, and IBM’s, IBM Q System One. Rather than many transistors spitting out zeros and ones, the quantum computer’s brain’ contains only a few qubits. The Sycamore chip has 53, and therefore the IBM Q System One 20. The qubits are made from the element niobium and pressed into a chip of silicon, the fabric that ordinary computer chips are made from.
By separating two niobium electrodes with a skinny layer of alumina, a so-called Josephson contact is made, through which a quantum mechanical superposition can occur. A Josephson contact is merely possible if the fabric is superconducting, meaning that it’s no electric resistance. This is often the most important challenge to beat when developing quantum computers for the house and office. Because the properties of quantum physics occur only at the tiniest scale, the slightest disturbance within the calculations is enough to form them ineffective. Even one atom of air or light particle can knock the vulnerable qubits astray, causing them to lose their superposition. that’s why the quantum contribute the laboratories of both IBM and Google is found at rock bottom of a freezer during a large cabinet with components made from gold and copper, which cool the chip to almost temperature of -273.15 ºC. This construction is named a cryostat, and it’s the sole thing that permits researchers to perform calculations on a quantum carve all.
This also explains why quantum computers haven’t contained more qubits up to now. The more qubits they need, the harder it’s to stay them in superposition for a short time due to the danger of electrical interference from outside increases exponentially with the number of qubits.
The next innovation
Despite the good advances made by Google and IBM especially, there’s still an extended thanks to going before the extremely powerful quantum computer are often found in our home. If we were to put in a quantum computer reception, the sensitive processor would probably need to be ready to operate at temperature. Moreover, Google’s quantum computer has ‘only’ beaten a supercomputer with a very complicated calculation designed for this purpose. The subsequent milestone is to urge a quantum computer to unravel a useful problem. To achieve this, the quantum computer must be ready to work with thousands and maybe even many qubits simultaneously. This is difficult since the structure of qubits in Google’s and IBM’s quantum computers is sort of a house of cards that threatens to collapse at the slightest external noise.
But perhaps a 3rd IT giant, Microsoft, has the answer to the matter. Through a so-called topological circuit of quantum bits, this company is trying to bypass the delicate structure of the quantum computer. The planning works like Lego blocks, connecting qubits like bricks during a house and thus making the pc less vulnerable. Whether the quantum computer would get its final breakthrough at Microsoft, Google, IBM or a fourth party is difficult to predict. One thing is for certain, however: the race to urge the quantum computer out of the freezing labs and prove the worth of the technology has begun in earnest.