Industry 4.0 – Satellites in Space


A satellite is an object that has been purposefully placed into orbit. These objects are named artificial satellites to differentiate them from natural satellites for example Earth’s Moon. The Soviet Union propelled the world’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1 on 4 October 1957. From the time about 8,900 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched and around 5,000 remained in orbit, according to 2018 estimation. From which about 1,900 were operational and the rest had surpassed their valuable lives and become space debris. Nearly 63% of operational satellites are in low Earth orbit, 6% are in medium-Earth orbit, 29% are in geostationary orbit and the remaining 2% are in many elliptical orbits. In positions of countries with the most satellites, the United States has the maximum with 859 satellites, China is second with 250, Russia is third with 146, Japan is on fourth with 72, India is on fifth with 55 and UK stands as 6th with 52 satellites.


Satellites are used for several drives. They may be used to create star maps and maps of planetary surfaces, and also take pictures of planets they are launched into amongst some other applications. General types contain military and civilian Earth observation satellites, navigation satellites, communications satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are similar satellites. The above-mentioned top six countries of the world have a minimum of 50 satellites in space for various uses. Those uses are including military & defense, telecommunications (TV, data, voice, video, etc.), surveillance; weather (Forecast of hurricanes, storms, floods & rains, etc.).

Space Surveillance Network​(SSN)

This is a division of the United States Strategic Command. It has been tracking objects in Earth’s orbit since 1957 once the Soviet Union opened the Space Age by the launch of Sputnik I. The Space Surveillance Network (SSN) has followed more than 26,000 objects. The SSN presently trails more than 8,000-artificial orbiting objects. The SSN tracks objects, which are 10 centimeters in diameter or larger. Those currently are orbiting Earth range from satellites weighing numerous tons to pieces of consumed rocket bodies weighing only 10 pounds.


Astronomical satellites

These are satellites used for the remark of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects.

The Hubble Space Telescope Biosatellites

These are satellites planned to carry living organisms, usually for scientific experimentation.

Communication satellites

These satellites are stationed in space for the drive of telecommunications. Current communications satellites normally use geosynchronous orbits or Low Earth orbits.

Earth observation satellites

These are satellites projected for non-military uses for example environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making, etc.

Navigational satellites

These are satellites that use radio time signals transmitted to allow mobile receivers on the ground to control their exact location.

Killer satellites

These are satellites that are designed to abolish enemy warheads, satellites, and other space assets.

Crewed spacecraft

These are big satellites capable to put humans into an orbit and return them to Earth. Spacecraft with spaceplanes of returnable systems have major propulsion or landing facilities. They may be used as transport to and from the orbital stations.

Miniaturized satellites

These are satellites of curiously low masses and small sizes. Fresh classifications are used to classify these satellites.

Reconnaissance satellites

These are Earth observation satellites or communications satellites organized for military or intelligence applications. There is less known about the full power of these satellites. Because governments who operate them ordinarily keep information relating to their investigation satellites classified.

Recovery satellites

These are satellites that deliver recovery of reconnaissance, biological, space-production, and other payloads from orbit to Earth.

Space-based solar power satellites are planned satellites that would gather energy from sunlight and transmit it for use on Earth or other places. Space stations are artificial orbital buildings that are intended for human beings to live on in external space. A space station is well-known from other crewed spacecraft by its lack of main propulsion or landing facilities. Space stations are designed for medium-term living in orbit.