Parametric and Nonparametric Machine Learning Algorithm


In this article, we will find out the difference between parametric and nonparametric machine learning Methods. We need to learn a function that maps the input as the set of independent variables X to the output as the target variable Y as described below.

Y = f(X) + ε

We require to fit a model over the data with the intention of approximating the unknown function, The procedure of the function we are trying to approximate, is commonly unidentified. Therefore, we can have to put on different models in order to develop there or make some assumptions regarding the form of function f. This process may be parametric or non-parametric in general.


The fundamental clue behind the parametric method is that there is a set of security parameters. That uses to define a probability model that is used in Machine Learning additionally.

For parametric methods, we are acquainted with whether the population is normal, or unless then we may easily estimate it using a normal distribution that is possible by invoking the Central Limit Theorem.

Parametric and Nonparametric Machine Learning Algorithim

Parametric Methods

We normally make an assumption with regards to the form of the function f in parametric methods. For instance, we could make an assumption that the unidentified function f is linear. The function is of the following form in another way;

f (X) = β₀ + β₁ X₁ + … + β  X


  • f(X) is the unidentified function to be assessed.
  • β are the coefficients to be well-read.
  • p is the number of free variables.
  • X is the matching inputs.

We have made an assumption to form of function that is estimated. Also chosen is a model that aligns with this assumption. Now we require a learning process that would finally support us to train the model and approximate the coefficients.

Parametric methods in Machine Learning typically take a model-based approach. We make an assumption there with respect to the form of the function to be guessed. Then we choose an appropriate model based on this assumption correct to estimate the set of parameters.

Examples of parametric machine learning algorithms comprise:

  • Logistic Regression
  • Linear Discriminant Analysis
  • Perceptron
  • Naive Bayes
  • Simple Neural Networks

Advantages of Parametric methods

  • Modest: These methods are simpler and easier to understand. Also, they are easier to interpret results.
  • Speed: These models are very rapid to learn from data.
  • A smaller amount of Data: They do not need as much training data. They can work fine even if the fit to the data is not faultless.
  • Forced: By selecting a functional form these methods are very constrained to the stated form.
  • Limited Difficulty: The methods are well-matched to simpler problems.

Limitations of Parametric Methods

  • Forced: By selecting a functional form these methods are very constrained to the stated form.
  • Limited Difficulty: The methods are well-matched to simpler problems.
  • Deprived Fit: Actually the methods are doubtful to match the fundamental mapping function.

Nonparametric Methods

There is no need to make any assumption of parameters for the assumed population. We don’t require the population that we are learning in Non-Parametric methods. Actually, the methods don’t rely on the population.

Instead, non-parametric methods state to a set of algorithms. That does not make any primary assumptions with respect to the form of the function to be assessed. These methods are accomplished by approximating the unidentified function f that could be of any form.

Non-parametric methods lean towards additional precision because they try to find the best fit for the data points. Though, this approaches at the cost of needing a very huge amount of observations. That is desired so as to approximate the unidentified function f exactly.

These methods are inclined to be less well-organized when it comes to training the models. In addition, non-parametric methods can occasionally present overfitting. They can on occasion learn the errors and noise in a way that they cannot simplify well to new, unseen data points as these methods tend to be more flexible.

Non-parametric methods are rather flexible on the carefree side. They may lead to better model show as no assumptions are being made about the primary function.

Examples of non-parametric methods comprise;

  • k-Nearest Neighbors
  • Decision Trees like CART and C4.5
  • Support Vector Machines

Advantages of Nonparametric methods

  • Flexibility: Accomplished in fitting a huge number of functional forms.
  • Control: There are no assumptions about the original function.
  • Performance: They may outcome in higher performance models for prediction.

Limitations of Nonparametric methods

  • Additional data: They require a lot more training data to estimate the mapping function.
  • Sluggish: A lot sluggish to train as they repeatedly have far more parameters to train.
  • Overfitting: Extra risk to overfit the training data. It is firmer to explain why particular predictions are made.

Mansoor Ahmed

Mansoor Ahmed is Chemical Engineer, web developer, a Tech writer currently living in Pakistan. My interests range from technology to web development. I am also interested in programming, writing, and reading.